Updated: Apr 18, 2020
Transcriptional profiling and therapeutic targeting of oxidative stress in neuroinflammation
Andrew S. Mendiola, Jae Kyu Ryu, Sophia Bardehle, Anke Meyer-Franke, Kenny Kean-Hooi Ang, Chris Wilson, Kim M. Baeten, Kristina Hanspers, Mario Merlini, Sean Thomas, Mark A. Petersen, Alexander Williams, Reuben Thomas, Victoria A. Rafalski, Rosa Meza-Acevedo, Reshmi Tognatta, Zhaoqi Yan, Samuel J. Pfaff, Michael R. Machado, Catherine Bedard, Pamela E. Rios Coronado, Xiqian Jiang, Jin Wang, Michael A. Pleiss, Ari J. Green, Scott S. Zamvil, Alexander R. Pico, Benoit G. Bruneau, Michelle R. Arkin & Katerina Akassoglou
Abstract Oxidative stress is a central part of innate immune-induced neurodegeneration. However, the transcriptomic landscape of central nervous system (CNS) innate immune cells contributing to oxidative stress is unknown, and therapies to target their neurotoxic functions are not widely available. Here, we provide the oxidative stress innate immune cell atlas in neuroinflammatory disease and report the discovery of new druggable pathways. Transcriptional profiling of oxidative stress–producing CNS innate immune cells identified a core oxidative stress gene signature coupled to coagulation and glutathione-pathway genes shared between a microglia cluster and infiltrating macrophages. Tox-seq followed by a microglia high-throughput screen and oxidative stress gene network analysis identified the glutathione-regulating compound acivicin, with potent therapeutic effects that decrease oxidative stress and axonal damage in chronic and relapsing multiple sclerosis models. Thus, oxidative stress transcriptomics identified neurotoxic CNS innate immune populations and may enable discovery of selective neuroprotective strategies.